Choosing the right android app architecture gives birth to several challenges and passionate discussion among developers with varied views.
Every android project you create is unique in terms of its architectural requirements. The factors that influence the architecture include Technology stack, usage of cloud technologies, toolset, server infrastructure, databases, and SDKs, the expertise of the developers.
Integration of third-party services like maps, payment gateways, and many more, type of project, future plans.
Parameters of a Decent Android Architecture
There exist four things that every developer intends to achieve with their architecture –
Scalability enables you to develop your project as your business expands. Scalability implies that the project can handle additional features and speedy growth of the user base.
If you do not create your app with the consideration of growth in mind, adding features that can benefit your business further will start becoming a problem and lead to bugs and app crashes.
The whole app will demand fundamental refactoring if you do not consider scalability while working on its architecture. Therefore, it is paramount that you always make your app scalable to account for business growth.
Reliability also depends on the architecture, as it illustrates how various sections of the app interact with each other.
Stable applications with no inconsistencies in code are feasible only with a suitable architecture.
Reliability is also dependent on the scalability of an app. If the architecture is unable to handle all the workload, it will become unstable and unreliable.
Because of this, bugs and crashes will start surfacing, and ultimately end up in customer dissatisfaction and might even lead to dangerous security breaches at worst.
New libraries and operating systems are continually getting released, and ensuring that your app stays up-to-date is a necessity.
As your business grows and transforms, you must include additional features and tweak the interface as per your business design and the latest trends on the mobile market.
You will not want to spend loads of money or time on maintenance, and thus, you must remember that the simpler it is to maintain your app, the less money you will spend.
4. Code reusability and testability
Code reusability is paramount if you wish to avoid rework and conserve time on your project. The fundamental principle that makes the code reusable is the separation of concerns.
Separation of concerns implies that distinct ideas must get separated in the code. Separation of concerns makes app parts independent from one another and supports scalability and maintainability.
If you intend to alter this functionality, you then need not worry about it disturbing all other parts of your app. This step makes it feasible to take a piece of code conveniently and implement it elsewhere.
Testability also gets seamless if your app architecture is built as per the separation of concerns.
Detailed Explanation of Architectural Challenges and Layouts
Here is a detailed overview of various types of android architecture –
Model–View–Controller is a prominent architecture that divides all phases of an application by purpose as per the separation of concerns principle. Developers categorize functionality into three major categories:
- Model — Retains all the information contained in your app. The model defines terms that your application operates.
- View — This is responsible for how your app looks as it caters to the UI of the app.
- Controller — This functionality instructs the View on how to behave. It contains the business logic of your application.
MVC is the most suited architecture for minor projects; however, it has a straightforward structure that does not cover all the peculiarities of an extensive project.
The Model–View–Presenter (MVP) architecture lets you test an application. You can reuse the presenter segment of the application several times since it can represent several interfaces.
Model–View–Presenter also complies with the separation of concerns principle. It segregates the app interface (the View) from the model and is used to build user interfaces.
There are two elements used by developers to ensure that the MVP architecture works effectively:
Building use cases means categorizing the business logic into separate classes and making them a part of the model.
These classes remain independent from the controller, and each class comprises one rule of business logic. This step makes it simpler to use these classes numerous times and create tests for them.
There exist four linear functions in the MVP architecture that do nothing but make slight changes to the user interface.
View binding is forming little reusable pieces of a user interface. All you need to do is write a code in XML, and the entire communication is done with the components by the bindings.
Model–View–ViewModel (MVVM) is another architecture that might appear somewhat similar to the MVP pattern, as they both segregate the View from the business logic. However, while MVP makes the View differentiated from a specific user interface platform, MVVM emphasizes the event-driven programming of user interfaces. This statement implies that MVVM is the ideal choice when you wish to make quick design changes.
Model–View–ViewModel architecture comprises –
- Model — This represents either a real state content or a data access layer that represents the content.
- View — This depicts user actions and notifies the ViewModel
- ViewModel — Moves data as per the requests of the View
In the MVP pattern, the presenter informs the View of what to display to the user. In MVVM, the ViewModel streams events which the View can bind.
Another feasible architecture for your mobile application is Model–View–Intent, or MVI. MVI only works with RxJava, which is a Reactive programming library.
MVI is based on data streams that interlink various elements present in the project as per the RxJava terminology.
The primary idea of the MVI development pattern is that no element of the entire layout will do anything other than send or receive data, and segments get divided as per the role they have in this data transfer.
There exist three principal groups of elements in RxJava:
In MVI, everything is a data stream that begins when a producer delivers data and ends when a receiver picks up that data.
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When picking an android architecture in mobile application development, keep in mind that you do not have to select only one.
Each project is distinct, and to design a custom architecture that reflects and supports its needs, pick several architectures and different elements from them.
The separation of concerns principle is a splendid way to make your code high-quality, understandable, scalable, and reliable.